Design codes and standards
The main Code of Practice for the design of reinforced or prestressed concrete structures (excluding bridges) was BS 8110, Structural use of concrete. This is divided into two parts. Part 1, Code of practice for design and construction is intended for general use and includes simple ´deemed to satisfy´ approaches for aspects such as deflections. Part 2, Code of practice for special circumstances gives more detailed design approaches.The design in BS 8110:1997 was originally on the basis of Grade 460 steel with a partial safety factor of 1.05. This was amended in 2005 to Grade 500 steel with a partial safety factor of 1.15, bringing it into line with the changes in the reinforcement standards.
BS 8110 is now superceded by Eurocode 2, BS EN 1992, Design of concrete structures, Part 1-1, General rules and rules for buildings, which was published in January 2005, and its UK National Annex.
Traditionally, liquid retaining structures have been designed to BS 8007, Design of concrete structures for retaining acqueous liquids´. This extended BS 8110 with particular emphasis on the provision of reinforcement to control crack widths. The code has now been replaced by Eurocode 2 Part 3, Liquid retaining and containment structures.
Bridges were designed to BS 5400, Steel, concrete and composite bridges, Part 4, Code of practice for design of concrete bridges. BS 5400 Part 4 has been replaced by Eurocode 2 Part 2, Reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges. Both these standards are used in conjuction with and the appropriate parts of the Highways England´s, Design manual for roads and bridges.