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Crane lifted panel systems are commonly used on building sites to form vertical elements and usually consist of a steel frame with plywood, steel, plastic or composite facing material. As the systems are normally modular, assembly time and labour costs are considerably lower than for traditional formwork, with fewer components required. Panels are connected together flat on the ground to form larger individual crane-lifted units. Assembly is very simple with panels connected and fixed using wedge clamps and hammers, reducing the requirement for skilled labour. Working platforms, guard rails and ladders can be built into the completed units of formwork. One limitation may be that the panel systems are designed for specific maximum concrete pressures, which may restrict concrete placing rates.
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