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The basic materials which make up the constituents or ingredients of concrete are Portland cement (not a trade name), sand, coarse aggregate (also called gravel or stone) and water. Sometimes the sand and coarse aggregate are supplied as one, known as ballast or all-in aggregate. The characteristics of these constituents and the proportions in which they are combined dictate the placing, hardening, strength, and durability properties of the batched concrete.
For further information go to main heading CONSTITUENTS.
Acknowledgement: The Concrete Society