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The main environmental deterioration effects on concrete stem from weathering, freeze/thaw, and fatigue from thermal movement caused by variations in temperature.
In addition, although the carbonation of concrete and the presence of chlorides in concrete will not directly affect the concrete itself they can change the characteristics of the concrete surrounding steel reinforcement making it possible for the steel to corrode.
Reinforcement corrosion may effect structural performance and can lead to disruption the concrete immediately surrounding the concrete.
Acknowledgement: The Concrete Society
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