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Concrete foundations in their simplest form consist of concrete cast directly onto the ground, such as strip foundations for walls or pad foundations for columns. They may be unreinforced or contain steel reinforcement, depending on the loading and the type of ground. Heavier loads are supported by piles (either precast piles driven into the ground or bored piles with concrete cast in situ) with an appropriate pile cap to distribute the load. Closely-spaced contiguous piles or secant piles are used as retaining walls for excavations.
Acknowledgement: The Concrete Society
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