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Depending on the force applied, impact of a hard object on a concrete member may simply lead to some crushing of the concrete in the contact region but severe impact may also cause spalling of concrete from the back face. The impact may also cause significant flexural or shear stresses, resulting in the types of cracking described above.
In some cases, depending on the speed of impact and the stiffness of the member, the deflected shape of the member may differ from simple bending.
Acknowledgement: The Concrete Society
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