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Fine aggregate (sand) grading affects consistence and finishability. Fineness Modulus (FM) is an empirical calculation used to support the optimisation of a concrete mix design. It is used to determine ‘degree of uniformity of the grading’. This can create a relationship between grading and consistence and/or the amount of cement or water to fill the voids. An example would be that sand with a high FM will have lower voids between the particles.
Acknowledgement: Concrete Society